Horse racing is one of the oldest sports and has evolved over time from a primitive contest of speed or stamina between two horses into a modern spectacle with numerous rules and regulations, sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment, and immense sums of money. Yet, it has retained its basic concept: the first horse to cross the finish line is the winner. As with all sport, horse racing has benefited from advances in technology. Among the most important are safety improvements on and off the racetrack. Thermal imaging cameras can detect heat stroke in horses, MRI scanners and X-rays can pick up a variety of minor or major health problems, and 3D printing has produced casts, splints, and prosthetics for injured or ailing racehorses. The horse is a very powerful animal and when pushed to the limit can suffer from serious injuries such as fractured bones, muscle strains, or head trauma. It is also susceptible to pulmonary hemorrhage, or internal bleeding of the lungs, which can be life-threatening. Most horses are given cocktails of legal and illegal drugs to mask the underlying pain, help them recover faster from workouts, and to increase their performance. Despite these dangers, millions of people continue to watch and gamble on horse races. The attraction of the sport is its combination of beauty, history, and excitement. Its fans, both die-hards and casual visitors, root for their favorite horses by name. The fans who cheered Seabiscuit, for example, were drawn to the great champion by his charisma and determination. They were also attracted by the prospect of a pay day that could relieve them from the tight clamp of poverty for a week, or even a lifetime, if their horse won the race. There is a wide range of horse races around the world, but some are more famous than others. The French Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe, the Caulfield and Sydney Cups in Australia, and the Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pellegrini in Argentina are some of the most prestigious international races. The acclaim of these events is due in part to the fact that they are run over long distances on high-quality dirt or grass tracks. Many horse races are governed by rules and regulations that must be followed by both the horses and their jockeys. These rules, which are sometimes called the racing code, include a number of regulations governing veterinary care and the use of medications and other substances. In addition, many races have handicaps, which are assigned to entrants by the race secretary or track handicapper. These handicaps are designed to equalize the winning chances of the different horses by establishing racing form. In the United States, there are several types of horse races that feature different ages of horses. The older races are typically restricted to older horses and include the Triple Crown series of three elite races. The Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes are some of the most prestigious American horse races.
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